Technical writing is a specialized form of writing.
Its goal is to help readers use a technology or to understand a process, product or concept. Often these processes, products or concepts are complex, but need to be expressed in a much simpler, reader-friendly form.
So within the technical writing genre, you will find: technical reports, installation and maintenance manuals, proposals, white papers, on-line help, process standards, work instructions and procedures.
While each discipline has its specific requirements, some basic elements are common. But before looking at those, the most important thing a technical writer must consider is the audience.
- How familiar are readers with the subject and with the specialized terms and abbreviations you need to use?
- What is the best way to explain those terms or shortened forms – footnotes, endnotes, glossary, table of abbreviations, appendix, links?
- Do you need to accommodate secondary readers (eg the manager or financier who will make the decision about the proposal), and how will you do that?
Now for those all-important elements:
- Clarity – The logical flow of the document will help readers understand the content. It can be useful to ask someone who is not familiar with the topic to review your writing before you finalise it. Using headings, illustrations, graphs or tables can be useful – your aim is to make it as easy as possible for your readers to understand what you've written. Consider how the way text sits on the page or screen – another clue to maximizing clarity for your readers.
- Accuracy – The information and the interpretation of data that you present must be accurate. If it's not, your readers will question the credibility of the content. Be careful to clearly differentiate between fact and opinion, and to accurately cite references to other works.
- Brevity – Strive to find the balance between the amount of information presented and the time needed to read the document. Remember that you can use an appendix or link to provide supplementary or background information. Consider using an illustration, table or graph rather than words to explain a concept – but remember, if you use a 'visual', do not give a long written explanation.
- Sentence length – Typically, complex or unfamiliar concepts are best presented in shorter sentences. This will give readers time to digest small pieces of information before moving on to the next. While this can be difficult to achieve, try to aim for approximately 25 words per sentence. If you find you've written a series of long sentences, look for 'and', 'but', 'however' and similar words where you can break the sentence.
- Paragraphs – The age-old rule about one topic per paragraph is a useful guide. That does not mean that you can have only one paragraph for each topic, but it does mean that having only one topic in each paragraph makes for clear, logical writing.
- Reader-centricity – You are writing for your readers. Make it as easy as possible for them to understand your work.
Keep these basic elements and other principles in mind as you undertake your technical writing tasks.